The Makers of Scotland

Tim Clarkson, The Makers of Scotland: Picts, Romans, Gaels and Vikings. Edinburgh: John Donald, 2012. 224 pg.

In his third book, Tim Clarkson takes on the first thousand years of recorded Scottish history. It’s a huge task, but Tim was more than up to the challenge. I really enjoyed it. I tend to focus so much on my narrow time period that it’s really good to properly put it all in context. For example, I was struck while reading this the parallels between the Anglo-Saxon adventus and the Scandinavian contact and migration to Britain. Both begin as raiders seeking only loot from soft targets (villas vs monasteries), then both are either offered payments or mercenary positions to protect Britain from their fellows, and lastly by military and other permanent migration to the isles.  All food for thought and I do wonder by these parallels aren’t talked about more. By usually constraining most of my reading to the pre-Viking period I can often miss such important contextual associations.

Do the math, to cover a thousand years in 225 pages, you can only expect so much depth. I think Tim covers as much chronological detail as possible in a book this length. He managed to untangle the Scottish and Pictish families and succession clearly and briefly. I wish I could talk him into writing a Men of the North style book on Dál Riata! By choosing not to delve into academic controversies, Tim swept aside discredited theories, replacing them with well received  new paradigms, and sometimes making a choice where the there isn’t consensus. Countless updates and choices brings out the clear and consistent voice of the historian I have gotten to know so well over so many years. Tim doesn’t write much about historical theory but his historical paradigms are deftly woven through The Makers of Scotland, just as with his other books. In some ways his voice has more clarity here because of the expanse of time covered – and that is a good thing!  I highly recommend The Makers of Scotland as an ideal, comfortable read whether you want a contextual refresher  or are coming to Scottish history for the first time.

Tim Clarkson is a generous and accessible author. He can be found at his blog Senchus (highly recommended) and on twitter at @EarlyScotland.

Berht of Dunbar?

Dunbar fortress at its height before it was intentionally dismantled.

Dunbar fortress at its height c.1400 before it was intentionally dismantled. Painting of Dunbar castle from the Marie Stuart Society Website.

I was reading Tim Clarkson’s The Picts: A History (2008) last week and I came across the following:

The sources credit him [Cinead mac Alpin] with six campaigns in Northumbria, during which he seized the coastal fortress of Dunbar and burned the monastery of Old Melrose on the River Tweed. Dunbar was an important stronghold of the hereditary guardians of Northumbria’s Pictish frontier. Among the family’s renowned ancestors was the warlord Berht — who led Ecgfrith’s ill-fated attack on Ireland in 684 — as well as other key figures in the Anglo-Pictish wars of the the late seventh and early eighth century. Cinead’s capture of Dunbar was of great symbolic importance for his Pictish subjects in the troubled border zone around the Firth of Forth. Not since the mighty victory at Dunnichen in 685 had an army from the old Pictish heartland inflicted so much damage upon the English. (p. 162)

I know Cinead is probably most people’s focus in this passage, but my interest is in Ealdorman/Duke Berht who also led the ill fated Northumbrian campaign into Pictland that ended at Dunnichen. Do we really know that Dunbar was the base of the hereditary guardians of the Northumbrian frontier?

Just a review of Berht’s claims to fame. First to attach this family to the Pictish frontier, Bede mentions two Berhts leading Northumbrian troops against the Picts in his chronilogical summary: Berhtred is killed by the Picts in 698 and Berhtfrith fought the Picts in 711. Both references suggest that Berhtred and Berhtfrith were leaders of the Northumbrian army and therefore, second only to the king. The Life of Bishop Wilfrid specifically calls Berhtfrith second only to the king. There is a Berctred listed in the Durham Liber Vitae immediately before Altfrid who is almost certainly King Aldfrith, exactly where he should be. There is no Berhtfrith listed but Eadwulf is, and as Eadwulf was Berhtfrith’s enemy in the succession of the child king Osred, which may explain why Berhtfirth isn’t listed.  We know that Berhtfrith was allied with Bishop Wilfrid, which may have also caused him to be left off of Lindisfarne’s Liber Vitae. It has been hypothesized that Berhtred and Berhtfrith were father and son, although of course they could be brothers or other kinsmen.

There are three specific traditions of these Berhts. First and foremost, a duke Berht (presumably Berhtred) led King Ecgfrith’s forces in an invasion of the Brega region of Ireland carrying off many hostages, at least several boat loads full. Adomnan brought back hostages from two trips to Northumbria and we don’t know that he got them all. Over years that it took Adomnan to negotiate the release of his hostages, it is likely that some had died and others were integrated into the monasteries of Northumbria and did not want to leave. Given Berht’s prominence in this successful invasion, it is almost certain that he was with Ecgfrith at the battle of Dunnichen against the Picts in the very next year. This also means that Berhtred may have been present when King Bridei took Ecgfrith’s body to Iona for burial, where Ecgfrith’s half-brother Aldfrith was waiting with Abbot Adomnan. If he was second only to the king and was apparently effective during Aldfrith’s reign, he must have supported Aldfrith and indeed, his support may have been vital for the succession of Ecgfrith’s half-Irish brother who had been gone from Northumbria for so long. His role as the Norhtumbrian king’s warlord appears to have been maintained judging by his death in battle against the Picts in 698, the middle of Aldfrith’s reign.

It is probably not a coincidence that Duke Berhtfrith was the critical figure supporting Aldfrith’s eight year old son Osred for the throne in 705 against Eadwulf who initially succeeded for three months. According to Duke Berhtfrith’s account of Eadwulf’s seige of Bamburgh in early 705 at the synod of Nidd, he was both young Osred’s protector and chief supporter for the throne against Eadwulf and credited their success to God’s support for Bishop Wilfrid who they vowed they would support if they were successful. Berhtfrith’s support for the boy may also reflect his families reliance on the descendents of Oswiu for their power. I do have to wonder if we don’t have a royal princess somewhere among the maternal ancestors of the Berhts (perhaps a daughter of Oswald or Oswiu, or Aebbe’s husband?). Berhtfirht is last heard from in a record of a Pictish battle in 711, the middle of Osred’s reign. It is likely that he was gone from the scene before young Osred takes power on his own and ultimately dies at the hands of his men in 716. I tend to think of Berhtfrith as being like a Mayor of the Palace. Like so many young Frankish kings, Osred didn’t survive coming in to his majority for long dying at age 18. Any survivors of Berhtfrith’s family were probably invovled in the political chaos that followed Osred’s death and may have seen some support in Osred’s reputed brother Osric. Ironically, the throne eventually passed to Eadwulf’s lineage in his cousins Cenred and Coelwulf.

Had Bede not written the Historia in the reign of King Coelwulf, we might know much more about these powerful dukes, but with their rivals in power Bede barely mentions them. Their inclusion in the chronilogical summary suggests that were was much more known about them somewhere in Bede’s sources. He either excised material about them, leaving the summary entries or they were in one of his chronical sources and got copied into the summary. While the latter may be true, I suspect Bede picked his entries in the chronilogical summary more carefully. Given that King Coelwulf had been deposed earlier in the year that Bede finished the Historia, Bede may initially included more on the Berhts only to later excise almost all contemporary information.

So coming back to Dunbar, it is mentioned only once that I know of in Bede’s time. It is the site of another miracle of Bishop Wilfrid. King Ecgfrith sends Wilfrid to Dunbar to be imprisoned in its dungon by its sheriff Tydlin. Whether Tydlin is the highest ranking official in Dunbar or not is unknown but it seems likely. Tydlin’s failure to imprison Wilfrid may have led to his loss of Dunbar and it being turned over to Berhtred, but then again Berhtred is higher up the food chain than a sheriff, so this makes me wonder how high status Dunbar was in the 680s. It makes sense for Dunbar to eventually become the seat of the march warden but was it all the way back to Berhtred’s time?

The real question though is if not Dunbar, then where would Berhtred’s fortress have been? Surely such a warlord would have controlled a hillfort, given the Northumbrian’s fondness for British style hillforts. Edenburgh is possible, but like Stirling it may have been far too close to the border. Tim may be right that after the battle of Dunnichen in 685, Dunbar may have been the fortress of the frontier guardian. It is interesting that Cinead also hit Old Melrose in the same campaign that ravaged Dunbar. Given the importance of Old Melrose to Northumbria, it is likely that there was protection nearby. Edenburgh keeps coming to mind as Berht’s fortress though maybe because I can’t imagine that it was sitting empty. It is likely that Berht’s fortress would have been on the coast though given that the sea-road was still dominate (as seen in all Northumbrian hillforts — Bamurgh, Dunbar, Edenburgh, Stirling…). Although old Roman fortresses that were particularly prominent in Northumbria  along both walls and inland as well, but the English haven’t been particularly associated with any of them. Dunbar may have been the best compromise position for a march warden who was as heavily involved in the politics of the kingdom as the Berhts. Dunbar was close enough to the Firth of Forth to keep tabs on the Picts and respond, while closer by sea to Bamburgh. Dunbar also has the added advantage of being an ideal spot to monitor naval activity along the coast.

Northern British Bibliography

This is a bibliography for Strathclyde,  Gododdin (Lothian),  Isle of Man, and Cumbria — ‘the Men of the North’, Gwyr y Gogledd.

Alcock, Leslie(1979) ‘ The north Britons, the Picts and the Scots’, p. 134-42; In: The End of Roman Britain: Papers Arising from a Conference, Durham 1978 Edited by P.J. Casey. BAR British Series 71.

  • (1983)’Gwyr Y Gogledd: An Archaeological Appraisal’ Archaeological Cambrensis. 132: 1-18.
  • and Elizabeth Alock, and Sally M Foster(1986) “Reconnaissance excavations on Early Historic fortifications and other royal sites in Scotland, 1974-84: 1, Excavations at St. Abb’s Head, Berwickshire, 1980″ Proceedings of the Society of Antiquarians of Scotland 116: 255-79.
  • (Jarrow Lecture 1988) “Bede, Eddis, and the Forts of the North Britons” pp. 775-806 in Bede and his World: Volume II The Jarrow Lectures 1979-1993 Aldershot, Variorum.
  • and Elizabeth Alcock(1990) “Reconnaissance excavations on Early Historic fortifications and other royal sites in Scotland, 1974-84: 4, Excavations at Alt Clut, Clyde Rock, Strathclyde, 1974-1975″ Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 120: 95-149.
  • (1993) “Image and Icon in Pictish Sculpture” p. 230-236 in The Age of Migrating Ideas: Early Medieval Art in Northern Britain and Ireland Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Insular Art held in the National Museums of Scotland in Edinburgh, 3-6 January 1991. R. Michael Spearman and John Higgett, editors. Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland and Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.

Anderson, A.O. (1922) Early Sources in Scottish History Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.

Anderson, Marjorie, O. (1980) Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland. Edinburgh and London: Scottish Academic Press.

Aneirin, Y Gododdin

  • Translation and notes by Kenneth Jackson. In: The Gododdin: the Oldest Scottish Poem (1969) Endinburgh Univeristy Press.
  • Translation, introduction and notes by A.O.H. Jarman Aneirin: Y Gododdin Britian’s Oldest Heroic Poem (1990) Gomer Press
  • Translation, Introduction and Notes by John Koch In: The Gododdin of Aneirin: Text and Context from Dark Age North Britain. (1997)

Annales Cambriae In: Nennius, British History and the Welsh Annals. Edited and translated by John Morris. (1980) History from the Sources Series.

Bede Ecclesiatical History of the English People. (1994) Edited by Judith McClure and Roger Collins. Oxford University Press.

Brooke, Daphne (1991) “The Northumbrian settlements in Galloway and Carrick: an historical assessment” Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 121:295-327.

  • (1994) Wild Men and Holy Places: St. Ninian, Whithorn, and the Medieval Realm of Galloway Edinburgh: Canongate Press.

Caradoc of Llancarfan and a monk of Rhys Two Lives of Gildas Translated and notes by Hugh Williams. Reprinted by Llanerch Press.(Gildas claimed to be Pictish.)

Carey, John and John Koch. 2000. The Celtic Heroic Age: Literary Sources for Ancient Celtic Europe and Early Ireland and Wales. Celtic Studies Publications (anthology)

Cessford, Craig (1994) “Pictish Raiders at Trusty’s Hill?” Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquity Society 69: 81-88.

  • (1993) ‘Calvery in Early Bernicia: A Reply’ Northern History 29: 185-87.
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  • (1996) “Exogamous Marriages between Anglo-Saxons and Britons in Seventh Century Northern Britain” Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 9: 49-52.
  • (1999)”Relations Between hte Britons in Southern Scotland and the Anglo-Saxon Northumbria” pp. 150-160 in Northumbria’s Golden Age. Edited by Jane Hawkes and Susan Mills. Sutton Publishing.

Chadwick, H.M. (1959) ‘Vortigern’, p. 21-33; ‘The Foundation of the Early British Kingdoms’, p. 47-56; In: Studies in Early British History Nora Chadwick, Ed. (1959) Cambridge University Press.

Chadwick, N. (1953) ‘The Lost Literature of Celtic Scotland: Caw of Pritdin and Arthur of Britain’ Scottish Gaelic Studies. 7: 115-183.

  • (1959) ‘A Note on the Name Vortigern’, p. 34-46; ‘A Note on Constantine Prince of Devon’, p. 56-60; ‘A Note on Faustus and Riocatus’, p. 254-363; In: Studies in Early British History Nora Chadwick, Ed. (1959) Cambridge University Press.
  • (1963) ‘The Conversion of Northumbria: a comparison of sources’ ; ‘The Battle of Chester: A study of Sources'; ‘Bede, St. Colman, and the Irish Abbey of Mayo’, p. 186-205 (1963) In: Nora Chadwick, Eds. Celt and Saxon: Studies in the Early Border
  • (1969) Early Brittany.  Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
  • (1976) The British Heroic Age: The Welsh and the Men of the North. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Charles-Edwards, Thomas (1978) ‘The Authenticity of the Gododdin: An Historians View’, p. 44-71; In: Astudiaethau ar yr Hengerdd (Studies in Old Welsh Poetry) Ed. Rachel Bromwich and R. Brinley Jones. University of Wales Press.

Clancy, Thomas Owen and Gilbert Markus. (1999) The Triumph Tree: Scotland’s Earliest Poetry AD 550-1350. Canongate Scottish Classics. (anthology)

Clarkson, T. J. (1993) “Richmond and Catraeth” Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 26: 15-20.

  • (1999) “The Gododdin Revisited” The Heroic Age Issue 1
  • (2006) “Locating Maserfelth” The Heroic Age Issue 9
  • (2008) The Picts: A History.

Cubbon, A. M. (1982) ‘The Early Church on the Isle of Man’, p. 257-282 In: The Early Church in Western Britain and Ireland Susan Pearce Editor, BAR British Series 102

Clancy, Thomas Owen (2000) “Scotland, the ‘Nennian’ recension of the Historia Brittonum, and the Lebor Bretnach” p. 87-107 in Kings, Clerics, and Chronicles in Scotland 500-1297: Essays in honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the occasion of her ninetieth birthday Simon Taylor, Editor. Dublin: Four Courts Press.

Dark, Kenneth R. (1992) ‘A Sub-Roman Re-Defense of Hadrian’s Wall? ‘Britannia  23:111-120.

  • ( 1993) ‘St. Patrick’s uillula and the fifth-century occupation of Romano-British villa’, p. 19-24 ; In: St. Patrick, AD. 493-1993. David Dumville, Editor. Woodbridge Publishers
  • (1994) Civitas to Kingdom: British Political Continuity 400-800. St. Martin’s Press.
  • (1996) ‘Proto-industrialisation and the end of the Roman economy’, p. 1-22; ‘Pottery and local production at the end of Roman Britain’, p. 53-66; In: External Contacts and the Economy of Late Roman Britain and Post-Roman Britain. K.R. Dark Editor. Boydell Press.
  • (1998) ‘Centuries of Roman Survival in the West’ British Archaeology 32 (March)
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Dark, S. P.(Petra) (1996) ‘Palaeoecological evidence for landscape continuity and change in Britain ca AD 400-800′, p. 23-53; In: External Contacts and the Economy of Late Roman Britain and Post-Roman Britain. K.R. Dark Editor. Boydell Press.

Davies, Wendy (1982) Wales in the Early Middle Ages. Leicester University Press.

Davies, Sioned and Jones, Nerys Ann  (1997) The Horse in Celtic Culture: Medieval Welsh Perspectives.  Cardiff: University of Wales

Fraser, James E. (2002) The Battle of Dunnichen, 685. Tempus.

Foster, I. (1969) ‘Presidential Address: Wales and North Britain’. Archaeologigia Cambrensis. CXVII: 1 16.

Gardner, Rex (1999) “Kentigern, Columba, and Oswald: The Ripon Connexion” Northern History 35:1-26.

Gruffydd, R. Geraint. (1989/90) ‘From Gododdin to Gwynedd: reflections on the story of Cunedda’. Studia Celtica Vol XXIV/XXV : 1-14.

  • (1994)’In Search of Elmet’ Studia Celtica XXVIII:63-79.

Hanson, W.S. and Campbell, D.B. (1986) ‘The Brigantes: From Clientage to Conquest’ Britannia 17:73-89.

Harke, Heinrich (December 1995) ‘Finding Britons in Anglo-Saxon Graves  British Archaeology 10

Hartley, B. R. and Fitts, R.L. (1988) The Brigantes. Alan Sutton Publisher.

Haycock, Marged (1983-84) ‘Preiddeu Annwn and the Figure of Taliesin’ Studia Celtica 18/19: 52-78

Henken, E. Traditions of the Welsh Saints. (1987) Cambridge England: D.S. Brewer.

Higham, N. (1992a) ‘Medieval Overkingship in Wales: the Earliest Evidence’ Welsh History Review  p.145-159.

Hughes, Kathleen. (Jarrow Lecture 1970) “Early Christianity in Pictland” pp. 268-284 in Bede and his World: Volume I Jarrow Lectures 1958-1978 Aldershot: Variorum , 1994.

Hughes, Kathleen. (1980) Edited by David Dumville. Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages: Studies in Scottish and Welsh Sources. Studies in Celtic History Vol. II. Boydell Press.

Hughson, Irene (1997) “Horses in the Early Historic Period: Evidence from the Pictish Sculptured Stones” p. 23-42 in The Horse in Celtic Culture: Medieval Welsh Perspectives Edited by Sioned Davies adn Nerys Ann Jones. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Jackson, Kenneth. (1953-8) ‘The site of Mount Badon’ Journal of Celtic Studies 2: 152-5.p

  • (1955) ‘The Britons in Southern Scotland’ Antiquity 29: 77-88.
  • (1959) “Edinburgh and the Occupation of Lothian” p. 35-42 in The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in some Aspects of their History and Culture presented to Bruce Dickens Peter Clemoes, Ed. London: Barnes and Bowes.
  • (1963) ‘On the Northern British Section in Nennius’, p. 20-62 In: Celt and Saxon: Studies in the Early British Border. ed. N. Chadwick. Cambridge University Press.
  • (1980) ‘Brigomaglos and St. Briog’ Archaeologia Aeliana Fifth Series, Volume X. The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle Upon Tyne.

Jobey, George ‘The Settlement at Doublestead and Romano-British Settlement on the Coastal Plain between the Tyne and the Forth’ (1982) Archaeologia Aeliana Fifth Series Volume X: 1-23.

Johnson, ‘Dual Personality of Gildas’ (1948) Antiquity. 22: 38-40

Jones, Glyn E. (1976) ‘Early Prose: The Mabinogi’ p.189-202, In: A Guide to Welsh Literature  Volume I, Edited by A.O.H. Jarman and Gwilym Rees Hughes. Swansea: Christopher Davies Publisher.

Jones, G.R.J. (1975) ‘Early Territorial Orgainization in Gwynedd and Elmet’ Northern History. 10:30-41.

Jones, Gwyn and Jones, Thomas, translators (1993) The Mabinogion Everyman Publishers

Jones, Michael E. (1979) ‘Climate, nutrition, and disease: an hypothesis of Romano-British population’, p. 231-51; In: The End of Roman Britain: Papers Arising from a Conference, Durham 1978 Edited by P.J. Casey. BAR British Series 71.

  • (1996) The End of Roman Britain Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Jones, Michael E. and Casey, John (1988)’The Gallic Chronicle Restored: A Chronology for the Anglo-Saxon Invasions and the End of Roman Britain” Britannia XIX: 367-98.

Jones, Thomas. (1967) ‘The Black Book of Caermarthen , Stanzas of the Graves’ Proceedings of the British Acandemy. p. 97-137.

Kent, J. P. C. (1979) ‘The end of Roman Britain: the literary and numismatic evidence reviewed’, p. 15 27; In: The End of Roman Britain: Papers Arising from a Conference, Durham 1978 Edited by P.J. Casey. BAR British Series 71.

Kirby, D. P. (1962) ‘Strathclyde and Cumbria: a survey of historical development to 1092′ Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society  lxii : 77-94.

  • (1968) ‘Vortigern’ Bulletin Board of Celtic Studies  23:37-59.
  • (1976-8) ‘British Dynastic History in the Pre-Viking Period’ Bulletin Board of Celtic Studies  27: 81-133.
  • (1977) ‘Welsh bards and the border’, p. 31-42; In: Mercian Studies Ed. Ann Dornier, Leicaster University Press.

Klar, Kathryn (1988) ‘What are the Gwarchanau?’, p. 57-96; In: Early Welsh Poetry: Studies in the Book of Aneirin, Brynley F. Roberts Editor. Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales.

Laing, Lloyd and Jennifer(1997) Celtic Britain and Ireland: the Myth of the Dark Ages. Barnes and Noble Books

Levison, William (1940) ‘An Eighth-century Poem on St. Ninian’ Antiquity xvi: 280-91.

Lovecy, Ian. (1976) ‘The End of Celtic Britain: A Sixth-Century Battle near Lindisfarne’ Archaeologia Aeliana 5(IV): 31-45.

Mann, J. C. (1979) ‘Hadrian’s Wall: the last phases’, p. 144-51; In: The End of Roman Britain: Papers Arising from a Conference, Durham 1978 Edited by P.J. Casey. BAR British Series 71.

MacQuarrie, Alan (1986) ‘The Career of Saint Kentigern of Glasgow: Vitae, Lectiones,  and Glimpses of Fact’ Innes Review 37(1): 3-24.

  • (1993) ‘The Kings of Strathclyde, c400-1018′, p1-19; In: Medieval Scotland : Crown, Lordship and Community Eds. Alexander Grant and Keith Stringer. Edinburgh University Press.

MacQueen, John. (1954) ‘Maponus in Medieval Tradtion’ Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society 31: 43-57.

  • (1956) ‘Yvain, Ewen, and Owein ap Urien’ Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society P. 107-131
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  • (1961) St. Nynia: A Study of Literary and Linguistic Evidence. Edinburgh and London: Oliver & Boyd.
  • (1992) ‘The Dear Green Place: St. Mungo and Glasgow, 600-1966’Innes Review XLIII(2): 87-98.

MacQueen, Winifred (1959-60) ‘Miracula Nynie EpiscopiTransactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society 38:21-57.

McCarthy, M. R. (1982) ‘Thomas, Chadwick, and Post-Roman Carlisle’, p. 241-256; In: The Early Church in Western Britain and Ireland: Studies Presented to C.A. Raleigh Radford Susan Pearce, Editor. BAR British Series 102.

Miller, M.(1975) ‘Historicity and Pedigrees of the Northcountrymen’ The Bulletin Board of Celtic Studies 26(3): 255-280.

  • (1975) ‘Bede’s use of Gildas’ English Historical Review  90: 241-61.
  • (1975)’The Commanders at Arthuret’  Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. 75: 96-118.
  • (1975) ‘Relative and Absolute Publication Dates of Gildas’s De Excidio in Medieval Scholarship’ Bulletin Board of Celtic Studies  26: 169-174.
  • (1975) “Date-Guessing and Pedigrees” Studia Celtica 10/11: 96-109.
  • (1978) ‘Date-Guessing and Dyfed’ Studia Celtica  12/13: 33-61.
  • (1978)’The Foundation-Legend of Gwynedd in the Latin Texts’ Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies. 27: 515-532
  • (1978) ‘The last British entry in the Gallic Chronicles’ Britannia 9:315-18.
  • (1978-80) ‘Hiberni reversuri’ Proceedings of the Society of Antiquities of Scotland. 110: 305-27.  [Isle of Man material]
  • (1978-80) ‘Geoffrey’s Early Royal Synchronisms’ Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 28: 373-89.
  • (1979) The Saints of Gwynedd. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
  • (1975) ‘Stilicho’s Pictish War’ Britannia 6: 141-5.
  • (1978) “Eanfrith’s Pictish Son” Northern History 14:47-66.
  • (1979) ‘The disputed historical horizon of the Pictish king-list’ Scottish Historical Review 58 (165): 1-34.
  • (1982) ‘Matriliny by treaty: the Pictish Foundation Legend’, p.133-164, In: Ireland in Early Medieval Europe: Studies in Memory of Kathleen Hughes. Eds. Dorothy Whitelock, Rosamond McKitterick, and David Dumville. Cambridge University Press.

Phythian-Adams, Charles (1996) Land of the Cumbrians: A Study in British Provincial Origins A.D. 400- 1120. Aldershot, Hants, England: Scolar Press

Rowland, Jenny. (1988) ‘Genres’, p. 179-208; In: Early Welsh Poetry: Studies in the Book of Aneirin, Brynley F. Roberts Editor. Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales

  • (1990) Early Welsh Saga Poetry: A Study and Edition of the Englynion D.S. Brewer.
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Scull, C.J. (1991) ‘Post-Roman Phase I at Yeavering: A Re-consideration’ Medieval Archaeology  XXXV: 51 63.

Sims-Williams, Patrick (1996) “The Death of Urien” Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies  32: 25-56.

Smyth, A. (1984) Warlords and Holymen: Scotland AD 80-1000. Edinburgh University Press.

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  • (1997) ‘A Gazetteer of Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600): the British Sites. Internet Archaeology  3 (
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Skene, William F. (1876, Reprint 1971) Celtic Scotland: A History of Ancient Alban Volume I: History and Ethanology. NewYork: Books for Libraries Press.

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Thomas, Charles (1979) ‘Saint Patrick and fifth century Britain: an historical model explored’, p. 81-101; In: The End of Roman Britain: Papers Arising from a Conference, Durham 1978 Edited by P.J. Casey. BAR British Series 71.

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Todd, M. – (1977) ‘Famosa Pestis and Britain in the Fifth Century’ Britannia 8: 319-325